MILITARY MODELLING MAGAZINE PDF

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Military Modelling Magazine Pdf

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Military Modelling Vol Issue 01 - dokument [*.pdf] PAGE What's going on at tyoususnappsave.ml Military Modelling magazine's website?. Military Modelling Vol Issue 01 - dokument [*.pdf] All reasonable care is taken in the preparation of the magazine contents, but the. Military Modelling COLLECTOR'S EDITION Aprilpdf - Free download as PDF taken in the preparation of the magazine contents, but the.

These present the culmination modellers who love quality techniques. Tankograd In Detail: Canadian Main Battle Tank. Military Figures for Dioramas. Building Dioramas 3. In action photographs and a detailed The ultimate diorama figures painting In the third instalment of the series walkaround, English text.

These easily mastered called Building Dioramas, readers can print-run copies. Paperback, techniques allow you to get good follow the making of four different, Encyclopedia of Aircraft Modelling d lli g 40 pages,75 colour photographs.

Scratchbuilding Masterclass. Interiors and Assembly. Full Colour, pages. Adam Wilders pioneering processes and techniques are described by him in the greatest of detail.

Adams Armour 2 will improve and enrich any modellers work from beginners to the more proficient. This volume totalling pages covering every aspect of stunning range of finishing techniques which keeps Adam at the forefront of scale armour modelling with Worldwide acclaim.

Extreme Reality. Metalics Volume 2. Many tricks and publication for modellers and fans alike you well known techniques to some or Abrams Squad: The Modern Modelling techniques from the best modelers.

Tankograd All that you need to know to build Kampfpanzer Leopard 2A7. If there is one modeller that th t has h distinguished himselflf over FAT in Detail. Artillery Tractors in Detail. Written by James Baxter and Tankograd Photosniper Panzer IV. Bookworld Wholesale Ltd. This book shows off the very best of all The Pz. IV Ausf. H and Pz. With spectacular dioramas, Frantisek Koran. J tanks were produced in UK Postage: Vehicles covered. Paperback, pages, full colour.

Hardback, black-and-white photographs, pages. British Military Trucks of the Cold War. Manufacturers, Types, Variants and Service of Trucks in the British Armed Forces The end of hostilities in left the British ushered in an incredible demand for a future, forces with a massive surplus of military vehicles potentially nuclear clash between NATO and the placed throughout the many countries involved in Warsaw Pact on European soil.

Much of this equipment after six The fear of World War Three made possible one of the years of war was in a very poor state of repair, most creative design periods in military technology ever. The introduction of the FV numbering system additionally The development and use of military trucks in the aimed at standardising the British military vehicle. Moves military truck designs. The result of this heyday had been made between the War Office and British of military vehicle development was amazing trucks British Military Trucks in manufacturers to produce a family of standard types taking shape on drawing boards.

Wehrmacht Service.

This search for much more suitable tactical-truck the very first time in one comprehensive publication. The upcoming Cold War 55 colour photographs. Our wheels are designed with use of original measurements and pictures. The original casting method leaves only a tiny trace of casting plug around 1 mm wide. The set contains 14 complete wheels, a spare wheel, a drill and a QuickWheel painting mask.

QuickWheel mask included. Each model is highly detailed and requires assembly and painting. Perfect for AFV modellers and war gaming fans alike. HMT15 - 1: HMT50 - 1: HMT51 - 1: HMT 1: For further information please visit www.

Military Illustrated Modeller Issue 098 - June 2019

III Ausf. Presented by the South London Warlords, Salute is the biggest independent one-day wargaming and gaming event in the UK. Once again, we have a huge number of international and UK traders attending the show at ExCel London as well as plenty of demonstration and participation games to enjoy.

We will, of course, be running our renowned painting competition on the day. Again this year there will be several golden ticket prizes for lucky advance eticket holders only. Full details at www. Please note: Big Green Gecko!

The kit is quite large and elaborate and has a high price tag.

In system. Earlier types such as the Krug vehicle in 1: While this is a big bite from the hobby budget, the model is fairly SA-4 Ganef and Kub SA-6 Gainful had separate missile launcher vehicles and radar vehicles.

Military Modelling International Magazine

The large and comes with a useful photo-etched sheet. These were too small and the prototype was eventually mounted on the Obiekt 8x8 wheeled transporter designed by the Kutai automobile plant. The first missile firing trials began in , and there were sufficient problems that the experienced Fakel design bureau was brought in to complete development of the 9M33 missile.

By the late s, it had become evident that the Obiekt chassis was not adequate, and instead the new Briansk BAZ amphibious 8x8 vehicle was selected. The 9K33 Osa system was accepted for service in October The design was still not very mature, and a string of changes were recommended including a shift from four to six The original 9A33BM of the initial Osa system had many distinct differences from the 9A33BM2 depicted missiles per launcher.

The early version was built in in the kit. As can be seen, the vehicle nose is blunter and the window configuration is different. Another obvious difference of the early 9A33BM is the exposed missile rails. A through re-design program began in as the Osa-AK. The most visible change on this version was the use of TPK transporter-launch containers that encased the missiles instead of leaving them exposed on the launch rails.

The BAZ chassis had numerous improvements, the most noticeable of which was the addition of two corner windows in the front, as well as a redesigned vehicle bow. This became the definitive production version of the system and is the type depicted in the Trumpeter kit.

The Greek army later downloadd some surplus German systems. Another modernization programme was initiated in , the Osa-AKM. The most visible difference on the TELAR was the addition of a 1L24 identification-friend-or-foe antenna on top of the existing surveillance antenna. The rear of the early 9A33BM had many small differences, and there Starting the model were prominent brushguards behind the missile rails.

One of the This is in the older colour and scheme reasons for this is that Trumpeter has moulded from the Warsaw Pact days. Andrzej Kinski the upper and lower hull parts in two large pieces. These are surprisingly well detailed and they make the hull construction very simple.

After a cursory examination of the parts, I was very impressed by the overall design of the complex missile-radar Text continues on page This colour scheme was for parade purposes and would not normally be seen on a serving vehicle, especially the painting on the antenna covers. Michael Jerchel. Detail views of the air pressure bottle over the cabin roof. A view of the rear end of a 9A33BM3. A detail view of the APU exhaust with the door cover open showing the white asbestos panel inside.

A view of the right side headlight and night driving light. A detail view of the forward cabin and windscreen wipers. A detail view of the right rear side showing some of the small detail around the hatch cover and blast cover.

A general view of the radar-missile complex from the right side. The left side missile control antenna module. Note the white cover on the uplink antenna. An overhead view of the surveillance radar in folded travel position showing details of the wiring. The base of the surveillance radar in folded travel position.

A view of the surveillance radar module with the radar antenna in the folded travel position. A detail view of the rear of the surveillance radar module. A rear view of the missile TPK. A detail view of the elaborate signal feed system in front of the surveillance radar antenna. The right side missile control antenna module seen from below. Another view of a left side missile control module on an Iraqi vehicle module showing the providing details of the wiring.

A left side view of the radar-missile core module with complex with the fire-control module to the left of the photo. A detail view of the 9M33M3 missile. This one is on display at an air show and is more colourfully painted than usual. An overhead view of the rear a green nose cover. Comparing it to photos I have taken of the Osa over the years, I noticed that a number of small wires and fittings could be added to the missile-radar module, but that the kit was otherwise very complete.

I decided to start on the hull interior first as I wanted to seal up the hull before proceeding with the small detail parts. Trumpeter suggests adding all the small detail parts to the separate hull assemblies, but I generally want to make sure that hull will go together properly before adding small and delicate detail.

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I started the model by adding The kit comes with an elaborate interior that detail to the cabin interior. The cabin interior after the fire control compartment since it cant be seen painting with the instrument panel once the model is complete. I actually cut off the shown in front. There is a curtain that is drawn between the rear fire control compartment and the forward compartments, and I depicted this with a piece of corrugated sheet plastic.

It provides a nice instrument panel, but the seats and bulkhead are very plain. I have never had the opportunity to photograph the interior of one of these vehicles, but there is quite a bit of material in the Walk-Arounds section of the Internet site Dish Models including some useful interior photos: The cabin interior after painting from the on either side of the seats are not well covered in right side.

The painted cabin interior. To the rear can be seen the curtain that I added to cover up the deleted fire control cabin in the rear. The surveillance radar module.

The instrument panel in the 9A33BM2 is painted aluminium as are many of the electronic modules inside the hull. The ordinary surfaces are painted a dull blue-grey. An illustration of the cabin interior from the manual. Another view of the unpainted surveillance radar. Most of the additional work involved detail to the antenna feed assembly and the various added wiring. In reality, these areas are not especially evident once the hull is closed up. But its nice to have the hint that something is in there.

I used various bits from the spares box as well as some HO model railroad detail parts. The Trumpeter kit is well designed with the window panels attaching from the outside of the hull. I wish more manufacturers would do this! As a result, it is possible to assemble the upper and lower hull halves before attaching the windows.

Hull With the interior completed I turned to adding the exterior detail to the hull. The kit antenna lacks the many lightening holes in the frame which I drilled out. The aft surveillance radar module prior to painting. I removed the diagonal reinforcing interest to this area. The combing around the APU bars to clean up the kit part, and then replaced opening is very thick so I carefully removed it them with. A view of the completed radar-missile complex from the front left side.

I left the cassegrain antenna protective covers off since they will be painted a different colour. This is the central core of the forward fire control module. Much of the extra work involved wiring around the Camera at the top of the module.

I added a fair really does not fit very well as provided. So I had to amount of detail to this area, including a new APU fuss with this quite a bit to get a better fit. The area vent as well as the combing on the APU door.

I rebuilt this with sheet plastic. I replaced the brushguard C80 with a length of HO The area around the large access scale photo-etched ladder which was closer in scale.

This is the side missile control and the hull. This destroys much of the hinge detail This is the most complex element of the kit and module prior to assembly, it shows which I then rebuilt. I also added various small detail certainly the most complicated. Overall, the fit was some of the added wiring. The braided cable was made from Karaya copper in this area based on photos.

I built most of the remainder of the hull out-of- fitting various bits before applying glue as I found the box, adding some small detail here and there. There are a few wires added bit thick. I also cut away the support arms for the transformers E4, E5 that required a good deal of to this, but mainly out of the box.

The two rear-view mirrors E3, E11 and replaced these trimming to fit properly. The kit provides a nice The main issue with the missile-radar assembly is the plethora of wires and wiring bundles that connect various transformers and other bits. I decided to add the more visible of these since it gives the model a convincing sense of complexity.

I am not going to list every single one, since there are dozens, but most are visible on the photos of my model or in the accompanying reference photos. For most of the small wire, I used. Fisherman who make their own flies use this material to weigh down the fly, and it comes in various diameters. The main advantage of this material is that it is very soft, so it is easier to bend into shape than copper or other types of wire. For the thicker wire bundles that had braided covers, I used lengths of Karaya twisted copper tank tow cable.

I began this process with the vehicle surveillance radar B2. This piece is very simplified. To begin with, it does not provide the modeller with the. A view of the completed radar-missile complex from the left rear side.

A view of the completed radar- missile complex from the right rear side. The right rear hatch should be separated from the hull below, so I used a razor saw on the right side and right rear to create a gap.

I replaced the various hinges and added the wiring detail in this area. On the actual vehicle, the radar antenna rotates a full degrees. It didnt bother me that the antenna is pointing towards the rear, but for modellers wanting a different angle, the upper assembly would have to be sawn off the top of part A11 before proceeding with assembly.

There are many detail issues with the surveillance radar antenna B2. The vertical supports should be perpendicular to the antenna face, but instead are parallel to the radar direction. I suppose that each piece could be cut off and slightly re-positioned, but I wasnt interested in doing such a complicated correction for such a modest result.

The main problem with part B2 is that the assorted mould lines are difficult to clean properly with the small reinforcing rods in place.

Military Modelling International Magazine

I removed all the reinforcing rods, and cleaned the antenna frame using files. This radar frame lacks the many small lightening holes and reinforcing ribs on the inner faces. I drilled out the lightening holes and made I replaced the brushguards over the air I substantially rebuilt the reinforcing ribs with plastic strip. I then replaced the pressure bottles on the cabin roof, and APU exhaust port and the cover. The thick kit combining with a new one made from black sheet plastic.

The forward missile control module on the front of the complex. The cassegrain antenna covers are missing in this view since they will be airbrushed a different colour. The antenna waveguide assembly C10 is a bit thick and chunky. I hollowed it out with the careful use of my Dremel power tool with some fine burrs. A view of the front fire There are numerous small details missing from this complex module after the complex has assembly as well as the assorted wiring.

I kept the been mounted on the hull. The finished model The forward fire control radar assembly is prior to painting from the left front side. It consists of the main fire control radar A4 in the centre and the two smaller missile control antennas D22 on either side. The Osa usually fires two missiles at the same time at the same target, and the two outboard antenna complexes are used to guide the individual missiles to their target.

I added many small wires to this assembly based on photos. From a painting standpoint, the cassegrain covers over the radars parts A2, 2 x D23 are a different colour than the rest of the vehicle, so I left these off to make it easier to paint.

On top of the fire control radar module is a 9Shch The finished model prior to painting from the left rear side. I used Bare Metal Foil to mask the windows. The finished model prior to painting from the right front side. I decided to depict this with the forward cover B14 open.

This meant hollowing out the front a bit so that a lens could be inserted at the front of the camera later after painting. The instructions recommend assembling the missile TPK transport-launcher containers on to the launcher frames assembly Steps 7 and 8 I would recommend against this since the TPK boxes are often in a different colour. In addition, it is important to make sure that the launcher frames are perfectly level, and the joint between these frames and the central module are by no means foolproof.

So I glued the launcher frames to the central module without the TPK, and aligned them on my workbench to make certain that they were properly aligned. On the actual The kit provides a variety of painting options, but vehicles, these are mostly in black I thought the selections were a bit boring.

After paint lithographed on to light metal plaques. The Polish colours are not identical and warning lights. For the brown, marking, and on current vehicles, this seems to be an orange reflective disc with an opaque black options, but I thought I used NATO Brown XF brightened up a bit with triangle.

To replicate this, I sprayed Tamiya Clear the selections were a orange. Orange X on a suitable circular aluminium colour For the field drab colour of the cassegrain covers disc with the triangle made from black decal sheet. The orange Green X in a ratio of four parts: The missile TPK come in different colours depending on their role.

The tactical containers A view overlooking are normal Russian camouflage green, but export the radar-missile containers to the Mid-East were often in sand. I decided to paint mine as training lens inside. To paint the narrow rubber gasket around the front windscreens, I used Bare Metal Foil. This is used by aircraft modellers to re-create metal finishes and is basically a very thin sheet of aluminium foil with an adhesive backing. I find that it is a very useful tool for masking certain delicate jobs since it conforms better to the surface than any masking tape.

It sticks very well when airbrushing, and it comes off easily. For markings, I raided my spare decal box and found a Polish szachownica insignia checkerboard of the appropriate size and the white tactical numbers came from the Microscale Condensed Gothic-White decal sheet.

One of the odder features of the kit is that the decal sheet has dozens of small decals for the stencilling inside the fire control cabin, none of which can be seen on the finished model.

I raided. A view of the completed surveillance radar. Notice that the cover on the feed horn in front of the antenna is white. I started by airbrushing the clear parts with Clear Orange, then masking off the upper section and airbrushing it with Clear Red X Weathering These missile vehicles are very expensive and so not subjected to much heavy cross-country use in peacetime.

So I decided to finish mine in a very lightly weathered condition, almost parade-ground standards. Once dry, I flattened the finishing by airbrushing on a few coats of Testors Dullcote. I added some highlights by dry-brushing.

About the only parts with any noticeable weathering were the wheels where I applied a light dust wash to accent the wheel detail. It does not go together as easily as a Tamiya kit, but it is not difficult to assemble with a little care.

Most of my added work was due to the sort of delicate details such as wiring that are impossible to mould into a kit. Be my Valentine! II but different in that the hull was lowered and a better protected silhouetted turret was designed. The production. T TOP: Valentine Mk. III of wartime British tank production. The Valentine have appeared in Tunisia Valentine and there are many excellent served on all fronts including the Eastern Front and Courtesy of Photoshop books and references on the development, design the Pacific.

There were 10 mark types and can be and service of this tank. The Valentine was a cousin categorized by main armament, turret and different to the A9 and A10 Cruiser Tank design.

Most of engines: IX and X and 75mm. A rare photo of a desert Valentine with the spoked wheels as per the kit offering. Photo source unknown. XI which were all GMC powered. The Mk. VIII never entered service. The Valentine was also converted into specialized vehicles such as the Duplex Drive, mine-flail versions and bridgelayers.

Derivative vehicles based on the Valentine include the Bishop and Archer self-propelled guns. The tank first saw combat in Operation Crusader in North Africa and served as a replacement to the Matilda Infantry tank. Although it proved to be a reliable vehicle, the Valentines 2pdr gun lacked firepower. While the Valentine did see other guns fitted to increase its firepower over the course of the next several years, the Valentine was replaced by the Infantry Tank IV Churchill and the US-made Sherman.

Crew mounting a Valentine. Photo source unknown The model This is my seventh Valentine model download but the first one to be built. I had downloadd models from Bronco Mk. IX and Mk. XI , MiniArt Mk. I, Mk. III, and Mk. IV , Alan Mk. III Valentine Mk. II item AF model looked to be the most detailed, devoid of flash, and its moulding appears to be sharper the definition of the nuts and bolts are good indicators.

But more detail also means many more small parts. My reading of various reviews by more knowledgeable modellers on all things Valentine is that the AFV Club offering is dimensionally more accurate and captures the many details and characteristics of the Valentine. This particular release of the Valentine Mk.

I item AF having been released the year before. There are also clear parts and a decal Mk. II item AF II provides 10 sprues in a dark green plastic sheet for six different tanks. I and Mk. II and the Mk. IV all sprues from the first Valentine Mk.

I kit item appear very similar, there are some subtle visual AF Also included is a page instruction clues to look for to differentiate between the Mark.

Aside from a few exceptions and there are tracks, a photo-etched sheet, a superbly turned always exceptions with British tanks , the main. A knocked out Valentine with German hand-painted markings, presumably captured and pushed into service then knocked out of service.

Valentine tanks into battle! It appears that all manufacturers have made a few mistakes on this particular part of the tank. Is served in North Africa, many of the Mk. II is that the Mk. II had two grab handles on Valentines Mk. IIs did. On the Mk. I, of the recent releases of the early type Valentine is these small details only exist on the left louvre. And the lower suspension and roadwheels. Photo source unknown this Mk. II release. II kit were more common to the Valentine Mk. I and only seen in limited numbers on the early batch of Mk.

IIs in the desert. While this is not an immediate problem, it would mean that the markings on the decal sheet included in the kit are not applicable. The majority of the Mk. IIs produced used the later style roadwheels which were oval shaped. II model can be built as instructed with the early style spoke wheels but then one would have to find a photo of a Valentine Mk. A few such photos did surface on the Internet of a Valentine II in North Africa with what appears to be early style roadwheels.

Photo source unknown included with the Mk. IV be inserted in the Mk. I received a prompt response indicating they would look into this further. Assembly Instead of running through the actual assembly of the model, I thought I would point some of the challenges that I ran into, mistakes that I made and some suggestions on making the construction process as glitch-free as possible.

The model is quite comprehensive and there are a number of very small parts which is impressive and perhaps a little daunting as well. The hull of the model built. Overall, the model has exquisite detail and void of any flash which engine deck, the rear sloping rear hull, the front makes the assembly a joy. Also, the model provides a few optional features such as mistakes along the way most adjustable and differing side skirts either extended or shortened repairable, some not in which case I had to resort versions , articulated suspension system, and Bren to sheet styrene to fix my mistakes!

A lovely model gun mounting on the turret.

Ideally, it becomes a but one needs to pay particular attention to the question of finding a reference photo of a specific instruction directives. II and modelling it per the photo as After the frame of the hull was put together, much as possible. I made the mistake of starting I started in with the suspension system.

The in on the build, attaching parts and bits which then suspension was not a difficult build and does narrowed my field of options when I reached for my provide the modeller with the option of allowing reference photos for those last assembly details.

The road wheels, that parts on the sprue that look like the instruction idler and sprocket are superbly rendered and idler images was the actual part to use double-check and sprocket also have separate hubcaps with a to ensure the numbers of the parts. My typical vinyl washer which sits behind the caps. A small sheet of etched-metal method of snipping off three or four parts then washers are attached to the vinyl track sprue.

This is provided and very easy to use. I made a few to remove the wheels and paint separately really attachment of the etch relatively simple. Surface detail is very well done the Mk. II had with crisply moulded nuts and bolts. For the two straps that piece of plastic engineering and had never seen wrap around the fuel drum, etch is provided but I used thin strips of this before. Of course, this is only an advantage Tamiya Masking Tape which worked if you plan on having a fully workable suspension very well.

The drivers hatch the suspension: Sometimes the image in the closed position. It is far too easy to make a mistake and end up putting a part or parts in backwards or wrong side up. Tools and fire extinguisher work and even though I plan on cementing the entire come with latches already moulded suspension and wheels into place, some pretty neat on.

These could be detailed further but I opted to build the model essentially positioning effects can be created depending on a out of the box. The AFV Club vinyl tracks are superbly done with open guide horn holes. AFV Club also offer individual tracks as a separate after-market item but I was quite pleased with the vinyl offering. A friend who had already built the Mk. II mentioned that cementing the suspension into place was far more logical regardless of tracks you decide to use otherwise you will end up with the problem of bogies not all firmly resting on the surface and the tension on the tracks potentially skewing the roadwheels.

The only feature of the model that I did not follow and thought it was too much work was the drilling of holes into the trackguards to accommodate detail parts. Super glue was used to affix all part that would have been inserted into the drilled of the etched-metal parts.

The fender. This worked a charm and I hoped that in problem that I did encounter is that the plates which the weathering process, none of the parts would hold two roadwheels could not be aligned properly fall off.

I did reinforce each part with super glue so with the adjacent wheels. So this meant that I would I felt comfortable that the parts were secure. The eventually have to glue these permanently and skip trackguards take on considerable detailing including BELOW: II turret is made up of trying to make the suspension system moveable.

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Hardback, pages, Black and White photographs. You will learn through high quality photos and step by steps many new ways to use different products to recreate realistic mud in your vehicles. Besatzungstruppe U. S Army Stridsvagn Second in a projected set of 3.

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Painting and Weathering Military Vehicles. Short Sunderland. Paperback, 73 pages. Paperback, 78 pages. Paperback, 80 pages. Interiors, paperback, pages. Painting, paperback, pages. Weathering, paperback, pages. Paperback, 80 pages, full colour. Paperback, 87 pages, full colour. Paperback, 83 pages, full colour.

Bookworld Wholesale Ltd. UK Postage: When the goal is to produce the best painted figure possible, details like these require a bit more attention than might normally be expected. Only the arms were glued onto our subject figure prior to priming.

Each equipment item was cleaned up, primed and painted separately. The last step necessary prior to priming of the figure is pinning. The small pins typically located under the heels of most figures are not adequate to support the weight of a metal figure, and additional reinforcement is needed. Those who have decided that this is not. After setting up for five to six hours, this undercoat served to prevent the blending processes from accidentally exposing the grey primer on heavilyworked areas.

Above The checkered band of the Highland bonnet in the course of painting with vertical stripes and a single central horizontal stripe of red. Green squares are painted over the intersections of the red stripes. First, carve off the existing pins. Next, drill two holes in the heels wide enough to accommodate the selected pins. Both heels so pinned should provide a reliable attachment.

The Floquil spray seals the metal veiy nicely and provides a good, dead matt surface that holds the paint well. The Floquil primer needs at least 24 hours to dry, which is best accomplished in a warm, dry place. I have even left figures in the oven overnight at degrees Fahrenheit to hasten the process. Once the figure has been primed, it is always a good idea to examine it closely one more time for any mold lines or casting imperfections that may have been missed at the clean-up stage.

Invariably I find some flaw that must be dealt with. It would be nice to say that this was a conscious decision based on a careful evaluation of the many painting mediums available. Unfortunately the truth is not nearly so impressive.

As a young modeller I got into the habit of downloading my paints at the hobby shop where I bought my models and, not having access to any other information, assumed that all other painters did the same. By the time I realized that artist's oils were the most commonly used medium I had already developed an enamel-painting technique with which I was comfortable.

The greatest benefit of enamels is their dead matt, realism, a quality that makes them ideal not only for recreating realistic fabric colours, but also for weathering.

Uniform and equipment details that require a bit of a sheen need only be coated with a clear gloss, or a semi-gloss mixture of clear flat and gloss paints. The short drying time of enamels is often bemoaned by oil painters.

Actually, enamels can be blended very well for a period of minutes after application. By keeping colour mixtures simple, and working in relatively small areas one at a time, there is ample time for careful blending of colours. Actually, the shorter drying time can be a blessing in disguise. While it is true that the longer blending time of oils allows more time for experimenting, the temptation to "overblend" - working mid-tones, highlights and shadow colours into a single nondescript shade - is too much for many oil painters.

A word is in order here concerning brushes. There are a wide array of fine brushes available to artists on the market, including many of the red sable variety. Series 7 brushes are indeed expensive, but they are certainly worth the money. I can't think of a single top painter who doesn't use them. Note the location of the areas of shadow.

It all looks straightforward enough at this stage, in this enlarged photo; but this head is actually the size of a fingernail. Patience is essential to achieving the necessary precision. Bottom left A medium shadow colour is added to the centre of most of the areas of light shadow. This colour is focused in the deepest part of the cheek hollow, the folds between the corners of the mouth and the nose, and around the eyes.

The edges of the medium shadow are then blended into the light shadow. Top right The light shadow is carefully blended into the base colour at the edges only; the distinction between base and shadow colours must remain evident after the transitional areas are subtly blurred. Bottom right The final dark shadow is applied to the deepest recesses of the face - those areas most concealed from the imaginary light source and the edges are once again blended into the medium shadow colour.

F o r e x a m p l e , t h e face is p a i n t e d flesh colour, the bonnet band white, feathers black, coatee red. This will provide a foundation for the blending soon to begin, and ensure that any areas requiring heavy brush work do not expose the grey primer. There are practical as well as psychological reasons for this. Painting "from the inside out" minimizes the risk of accidentally slopping paint over outer areas while trying to paint inner ones.

But the main reason for painting the face first is its overall importance to the figure's appearance. The face is without question the m o s t important feature on any figure e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , a knight wearing a closed helmet I find that if the face goes well, I become energized to work through the less g l a m o r o u s a s p e c t s of p a i n t i n g the figure like knapsacks and sword slings.

To get the face right is to overcome the biggest challenge to producing a wellpainted figure. First the face is given a thin coat of a flesh mixture. The ratios of each of these components vary greatly depending on the complexion of the figure I am depicting. Even the venerable Robert E. Lee's face appears to be quite brown in several of the photographs taken of him during the American Civil War.

For this reason, I usually add more brown and red colours and less Flesh. This thinned coat of paint is allowed to partially set for about 20 minutes before the shading begins.

The first shadow colour applied is the subtlest one, using a mixture similar to that used for the face, but with less Flesh and bit more Leather and red. Once again the mixture is kept very thin - transparent, in fact - and is applied in the hollow under the cheekbones, along the fold beside the nose and on each side of the nose, in the temples, beneath the lower lip, and under the eye bag.

The intent here is to pull the two colours together along the "border" so that one seems to fade into the other. Great care is taken to ensure that two distinctively coloured areas remain, each fading into the other, and not a single colour made from a combination of the two. Left The first highlight colour is added. Above After the blending of the edges of the initial highlights, a final extra light highlight is sparingly applied to "pull out" the facial features - the corner of the cheekbone, the undulations in the nose, the top of the chin, and areas above the upper lip; the ear will also receive this treatment.

At this point the shaping of the eyes and the painting of the teeth, lips and tongue were also completed. In each case the intermediate shadow is meant to deepen the shadow effect in these areas, and is applied using the bullseye principle, i.

It is always better to be too bold than too timid. The timid painter, whose shadows and highlights are so subtle as to be virtually indiscernible, often finds his efforts go unnoticed in the glare of display cases and the poor lighting so typical of miniature exhibitions. The same basic process is now repeated over a smaller area with a slightly darker version of the shadow mixture, this time made by mixing Leather, red and a bit of black to produce a medium chocolate colour with a slightly reddish tinge.

The bonnet and collar have been finished. Basic colours have been laid down on the coat, lace " l o o p s " and sash; and work on the crossbelt and pack straps is progressing.

I consider the effective use of highlights a critical step, and one often neglected by otherwise good painters. The first highlight colour applied, for which I use a mixture of Flesh with a bit of red, Natural Wood and white, should be clearly lighter than the base colour, and compatible in tone. In other words, a base colour with a reddish tinge to it must have a similar tinge in the highlights; a more heavily tanned face may have had more Leather in the base coat; and these factors must be considered when mixing the suitable highlight shade.

A combination of black and Flesh is used to create a charcoal grey colour. This mixture must be kept very thin while it is applied to the whisker areas. While the paint is still wet the edges are blended, and highlighted areas are cleared out so that only a slight hint of the grey colour is evident there. The neck, ears and hair are painted separately using the same principles described for the face.

Highlighting is particularly important for the ears, the top edge and the inner protrusions receiving special attention. As a final touch, a thin coat of water-based Polly S semi-gloss is applied to the entire face and neck area as it will be later to the hands and knees.

The semigloss is created by mixing more or less equal portions of clear gloss and clear flat paints, and brings added depth and a sense of moisture to the skin. I consider this step to be an absolute must for enamel painters, and only after completing it do I ever feel that the face is truly finished.

Highlights are applied to the cheekbones, the bone above the eyebrows, the bridge of the nose, the nostrils, the top of the chin, above the upper lip, at the top of the eye bag, and along the diagonal ridge going from the inner eye towards the corner of the jaw.

Each highlight is carefully blended into the adjoining colour. The second highlight is much lighter in colour, and is intended to pinpoint certain areas most likely to reflect light. Tlie point of the cheekbones, the tip of the nose and sometimes the "break" in the nose , the area just below the folds beside the nose, and the top of the chin are each highlighted, taking care to ensure that the application is confined to a small portion of each area The highlight is then blended into the base colour.

The next step is the eyes. Starting with the "whites", which of course are not white at all, a mixture of white and Natural Wood is applied in a wedge shape to each eye. Next a carefully painted line, following the shape of the eye, is applied to the upper portion of the eye. Along the lower edge of the eye a thin line is drawn using the light shadow colour used on the face.

The greater size of the mm figure allows for more detail in the eye painting than a 54mm figure, and I like to add a small black dot to the pupil; as a final touch, a tiny dot of sky blue is carefully applied to each side of the upper portion of the eyeball, to add a bit of a "twinkle". A thin black underline beneath the thickest portion of the eyebrow adds depth to them, and a few carefully applied highlights complete the effect As most soldiers on campaign don't have time to Right The upper p a r t of the body, sleeves and hands have been completed n o t e careful shadowing and highlighting on the hands, particularly.

Now the basic colours have been laid down on the kilt, with broad green stripes painted at regular vertical and horizontal intervals over a base coat of dark blue. F a r right The completed 79th Highlander's kilt in Cameron of Erracht tartan.

Note the dark overall appearance, and the subdued tones of the fine red and yellow lines except where t h e yellow-on-yellow intersections make spots of bright colour. The bonnet band was first undercoated in an off-white mixture of white, with small amounts of black and Natural Wood colours.

The top edge of the band was carefully edged with a thin pure white line to separate it from the body of the bonnet. This principle will be used throughout the painting of the figure's uniform and equipment. The red checks were added next with another subdued mixture, this time a red diluted with a bit of Natural Wood and Flesh to suggest fading. Where the red vertical and horizontal lines crossed, a dark green square was painted. Precision is the key to successfully painting the bonnet band.

It is also very important that a good sharp detail brush be used, such as a The oil paint helps to give the black more depth, thereby allowing for more subtlety in the highlighting. Highlights were carefully applied line by line using two shades of blue-grey.

The base highlight was a dark blue-grey colour, with a lightened version in certain raised areas, and along the edges of the feathers. I NEVER dry-brush feathers, as the crude against-thegrain look inherent to that technique runs counter to the soft graceful effect desired for the feathers.

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In fact I try to stay away from dry-brushing in general as much as possible. The techniques used in the painting of each area are identical to those used in painting the face; the initial application of a thin b a s e coat, followed by t h r e e progressively d a r k e r shadow tones, and one to two shades of highlight, each application feathered into the adjoining colour using a brush slightly moistened with thinner. To maintain the warmth of the red throughout the shaded areas, a bit of Alizarin Crimson oil paint was used with the Humbrol Scarlet 60 , over a base coat mixed from Scarlet, Leather and Brick Red.

Flesh was added to this base colour to create the highlight colour. Flesh adds a convincing dusty, faded look to the red. The crimson sash was painted with a base colour of German Purple 70 , Scarlet 60 and Alizarin Crimson oil paint. The shadow colour is Alizarin Crimson, Scarlet and black, while the highlights were created by adding bit of Flesh to the base mixture.

A generic dark green was used for the central stripe.

The woollen tufts at the ends of the shoulder straps were first painted a pale brownish grey colour, then "dabbed" not drybrushed with progressively lighter highlights, the last being pure white.

It is worth noting that the canteen w a s painted separately, the steel retaining bands being painted blue along with the wooden portions.

The fact that no paint remains on the metal bands on extant canteens has led some to mistakenly report that the steel bands were left a bright steel colour. In fact, the entire canteen was given an overall coat of paint after assembly, bands and all. I like to use the ochre Humbrol Yellow, Leather and Burnt Umber oil paint , as it facilitates m o r e p r e c i s e highlighting a n d s h a d i n g than the metallics without the "grainy" appearance.

Good kilt painting d o e s indeed involve several overlaid colours, many straight, narrow lines and a great deal of precision. However, many of these challenges may be overcome with some simple planning. The C a m e r o n of E r r a c h t kilt o n e of the m o r e complicated was first over-painted with a dark blue colour.

The rear of the jacket shows highlighting and shadowing to visually "pull out" or "push back" the different areas of cloth around the pocket, turnback, rear pleat, lower edge.

The aspiring medal-winner must discipline himself to give the same patient attention to the less glamorous items, such as the knapsack. Note the lace and button detail. This mercilessly over- lifesize enlargement remember - the whole figure is only about 1 ins. Once dry, black bordering lines were painted along the edges of each green band.

Now the fun begins! The Cameron tartan involves groups of four red lines running along each row of the pattern a good tartan reference book was consulted for the grouping of these lines , with a single yellow line running down only the green bands.

The key to mixing these colours is to keep them very dark. The red colour is actually a dark reddish brown, while the yellow is a deep yellowish green.

Keep in mind that the red and yellow fabric is intermingled on the kilt with the colour fabric beneath it. Hence, the yellow and red threads are equally intermingled with green or blue threads. Great care must be taken not to make it too dark, but this step also brings a unity to the finish which will add an extra degree of realism.

The hose were painted using the same principles as those used on the kilt, with the exception that the pinkish bands were painted diagonally. Where they cross, a red diamond was painted. In examining Highland hose, one can see that the pink areas are not actually pink, but have a red and white speckled appearance.

This was duplicated by adding a scattering of red and white flecks to these pink areas. Getting the pink bands to meet in the back of the hose can be a real problem, but this was solved by simply painting a light grey "seam" up the back of the hose, and terminating each band at that line. That is, after all, how the hose are designed, so it has the added benefit of being realistic, as well as expedient. A word is in order here concerning paint medium for The trickiest step in painting the lines is keeping them even, straight and narrow.

There is no magic trick to this, just practice and patience. Don't expect to find a convenient can of tartan spray paint at your local hobby shop! The paint on the brush must be kept thin enough to flow smoothly from the brush in an even line. Obviously, a good sharp detail brush is an essential here. When all lines are complete, a final touch is a speck of pure yellow where the yellow lines cross. In these tiny areas the threads are pure yellow, hence the subdued colours desired for the rest of the lines are not applicable.

Once the tartan is painted, it's a good idea to step back and look at it critically. Very few oil painters use oil colours for tartan work, as the shiny finish tends to look unrealistic, while the thinner consistency of the oil paint makes it more difficult to paint even, opaque lines.

If enamels are a problem for you, most waterbased acrylic paints are also well suited to tartan work. The added height sets off the figure and helps to draw attention, while the exquisite finish of the base brings an air of elegance to its display. There are few images more discouraging in this hobby than a well painted figure mounted on a cheap, poorly finished base. If one is going to put many hours into carefully painting a miniature to be shown to friends, family and peers within the hobby, it makes sense to present it as handsomely as it deserves.

There are so many readymade bases available nowadays that there really is no excuse for cutting corners on this important element. Holes were drilled into the base to accommodate the locating pins in the heels of the figure, into which the figure was trial-fitted. I like to use putty for small areas requiring groundwork, due to its "moldability", and the fact that it forms a very firm foundation to which the figure's feet can be glued.

Once the shape of the terrain was established, small pebbles were embedded in the groundwork, and a combination of dirt and baking soda was sprinkled over it. Finally, the entire surface was textured by pressing a rough stone into the putty to create a coarse, uneven texture to the "soil". The entire process took fifteen minutes, after which the figure was placed under a warm lamp for an hour to dry the oven can crack the finish on the wooden base.

The soil and rocks were painted with enamels, with limited light dry-brushing, coupled with washes of Burnt Umber oil paint to create varying shades for the soil. Static grass was attached in clumps using white glue, after which it was painted a dull yellowish brown colour.

The final touch was the nameplate, made by special order at a local trophy shop. The true key to painting stock figures is to pay proper attention to the details. While careful blending and shading are very important, each aspect of the figure should be given the full attention it deserves, whether that means taking care not to "slop" one colour over into an adjoining one, or to paint a subtle wood grain into the canteen.Paperback, pages, full colour.

The instrument panel in the 9A33BM2 is painted aluminium as are many of the electronic modules inside the hull. I added a set of headphones and a connecting cable. Full Colour, 54 pages. The crimson sash was painted with a base colour of German Purple 70 , Scarlet 60 and Alizarin Crimson oil paint. For most of the small wire, I used. Your subscription is most likely to start with the next available issue.