“A proper reconstruction of the history of the Tamil country in the Political History of Tamil Nadu with a Cultural and Socio-Economic Perspective pdf>. Tamil Nadu Board (TNSCERT) Textbooks Download History Class - 11 Download NCERT Books (FREE PDF) · IGNOU Notes · Text Books. தமிழ்நாடு வரலாறு - Tamilnadu History Updates & Discussions Tamil This thread is dedicated for news, updates, discussion on history of Tamilnadu. .. tyoususnappsave.ml tyoususnappsave.ml
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[Download] History Textbooks of Tamilnadu State Education Board for maths- science-history-civics: all subjects are given in single PDF files term . I want to pdf in hindi ancient and medival tamil nadu board plz sir help me. The region of Tamil Nadu or Tamilakam, in the southeast of modern India, shows evidence of "The History of Reservations in India From The s to the s" (PDF). Cynthia Stephen. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai ( formerly . The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February
In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.
Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Veeran Sundaralingam — was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in which killed more than British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai , younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers , Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army .
At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established governance over entirety of Tamil Nadu. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company , predating the Indian Rebellion of by half a century. During the administration of Governor George Harris — measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration.
Legislative powers given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act and Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of —78 and the Indian famine of — The famine led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora.
The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north west and Andhra Pradesh to the north.
To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.
Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest coastline at about Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5. Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid.
The state has two distinct periods of rainfall:. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.
There are about species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including elephants , tigers , leopards , wild dogs , sloth bears , gaurs , lion-tailed macaques , Nilgiri langurs , Nilgiri tahrs , grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer , resident and migratory birds such as cormorants , darters , herons , egrets , open-billed storks , spoonbills and white ibises , little grebes , Indian moorhen , black-winged stilts , a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans , marine species such as the dugongs , turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.
This includes species of medicinal plants , endemic species, species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and red-listed species. The Gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes species of which Tamil Nadu has about species. Vast numbers of bryophytes , lichen , fungi, algae and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.
Common plant species include the state tree: Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium , ebony Diospyros nilagrica , Habenaria rariflora orchid , Alsophila , Impatiens elegans , Ranunculus reniformis , and royal fern.
Tamil Nadu has a wide range of Biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries , salt marshes , mangroves , Seagrasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.
The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats.
To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrassrass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests.
The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers. Palaniswami  and Vijaya Kamlesh Tahilramani  respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 33 districts. Chennai formerly known as Madras is the state capital. It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan cities of India.
The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and Legislative Assembly constituencies. Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until , when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature , like most other states in India.
The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by Edappadi K. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. It is the fifth largest state police force in India as of , total police force of TN is 1,11, and has the highest proportion of women police personnel in the country total women police personnel of TN is 13, which is about Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 33 districts , which are listed below.
History of Tamil Nadu
Districts are further divided into Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising Revenue blocks. Cities and towns are administered by Municipal corporations and Municipalities respectively. The urban bodies include 12 city corporations , municipalities and town panchayats. Regional parties have dominated state politics since One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party , by its opponents.
Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India. The Justice Party which was under E.
Ramaswamy was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and C. Annadurai , the party was split. The DMK decided to enter politics in Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India.
The state has registered the lowest fertility rate in India in year —06 with 1. At the India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,, There are a total of 23,, households. A total of 14,, people constituting The state has 51,, literates, making the literacy rate There are a total of 27,, workers, comprising 4,, cultivators, 6,, agricultural labourers, 1,, in house hold industries, 11,, other workers, 4,, marginal workers, , marginal cultivators, 2,, marginal agricultural labourers, , marginal workers in household industries and , other marginal workers.
Among the cities in , the state capital Chennai , was the most populous city in the state , followed by Coimbatore , Madurai , Trichy and Salem respectively. Poverty in the state dropped from The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population.
Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Religion in Tamil Nadu . As per the religious census of , Tamil Nadu had Tamil is the sole official language of Tamil Nadu while English is declared an additional official language for communication purposes. Tamil was the first language to be recognised as a classical language of India. Distribution of languages in Tamil Nadu . Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India.
One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward section of the society, the highest among all Indian states.
Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam. Tamil written literature has existed for over years.
Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection contains poems composed by poets, some of whom remain anonymous. The categories are: Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the B. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry. In , the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named 'Thambiraan Vanakkam', thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published.
Pongal , also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal festival of Tamils or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu. The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new.
The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai 14 January or 15 January in western calendar. The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands. Jallikattu , a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day.
Alanganallur is famous for its Jallikattu   contest usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. In the Madras High Court Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.
The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar , i. Gregorian is Thiruvalluvar Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi , which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Kaveri. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place.
Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman , the mother goddess of rain. Mahamagam a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival.
This festival is also called as Kumbamela of South. In terms of modern cine-music, Ilaiyaraaja was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late s and s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream.
Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar Winner A. Rahman    who has composed film music in Tamil , Telugu , Hindi films , English and Chinese films. He was once referred to by Time magazine as "The Mozart of Madras ". Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in The first of its kind was established in Madras , called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone".
This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.
Tamilnadu Gov. History Textbook [standard 6 to 12]
There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in Tamil. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links. Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes , Madurai is the place of origin of milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham. According to the Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India 49 per cent , accounting for 9. Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at Tamil Nadu has a network of about industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure.
Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In , Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice. The total cultivated area in the State was 5.
The state is the largest producer of bananas, turmeric , flowers,  tapioca,  the second largest producer of mango ,  natural rubber ,  coconut , groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota ,  Tea  and Sugarcane.
Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17, hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for Namakkal is also one of the major centres of egg production in India.
Coimbatore is one of the major centres for poultry production. Tamil Nadu is one of the leading States in the textile sector and it houses the country's largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country.
There are 2, Hand Processing Units 25 per cent of total units in the country and Power Processing Units 40 per cent of total units in the country in Tamil Nadu. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries.
Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Chennai is known as the Detroit of India. Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps.
The city is one of the largest exporters of wet grinders and auto components and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication.
Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.
Must-visit Tourist Places In Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms. Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas.
There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5, This is nearly 2. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The State accounted for Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign.
The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1, in to in and in Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai , the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala , Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh.
Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Chennai Central is gateway for train towards north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as gateway for south. The network connects the state with most major cities in India.
The centenary old Pamban Bridge over sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean.
Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro with phase1 operational since July The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia.
Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai , Ennore and Tuticorin , as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country. Tamil Nadu generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over MW,  accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India.
The Tuticorin Thermal Power Station has five megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned in July From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu government's new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to MW by Kabbadi , is recognised as the state game in Tamil Nadu. Ilavazhagi carrom world champion from — The M. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50, and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association.
Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. Nirupama Vaidyanathan , the first Indian women to play in a grandslam tournament also hails from the state. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in Olympics at Moscow.
The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.
Tamil Nadu also has Golf ground in Coimbatore, The Coimbatore Golf Club is an hole golf course located in a place called Chettipalayam in Coimbatore, located within the city limits in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.
The Club is also a popular venue for major Golf Tournaments held in India. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu SDAT , a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Coimbatore, it is a football stadium and also a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore constructed in The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent.
According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State in Southern India. State in India. From top, left to right: Location of Tamil Nadu in India. Main article: History of Tamil Nadu. Main articles: Sangam period , Tamilakam , and Sangam landscape. Bhakti Movement.
Chola dynasty. Architecture from Chola period From left to right: Vijayanagara Empire. Madras Presidency. Protected areas of Tamil Nadu. Demographics of Tamil Nadu. Largest cities or towns in Tamil Nadu As of the Census. Christianity 6. Islam 5. Jainism 0. Sikhism 0. Buddhism 0. Other or not religious 0. Tamil language. Telugu 5. Kannada 1. Urdu 1. Malayalam 1. Other 1. Education in Tamil Nadu.
Tamil people , Temples of Tamil Nadu , and Tamil literature. See also: Ancient Tamil music and Carnatic music. Tamil cinema. Tamil cuisine. List of airports in Tamil Nadu. Sports in Tamil Nadu. Tourism in Tamil Nadu. Girija Vaidyanathan is the new chief secretary". Deccan Chronicle. Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 18 October Government of India.
PRS Legislative Research. Archived from the original PDF on 2 February Retrieved 1 January Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Ministry of Minority Affairs Government of India. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Global Data Lab.
Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Retrieved 25 September Census of India. Retrieved 27 February Odisha, Bihar least developed; Goa, Kerala on top". March Archaeology - Anthropology: Sharp stones found in India signal surprisingly early toolmaking advances".
Very old, very sophisticated tools found in India.
The question is: Who made them? The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 27 March The Hindu. Retrieved 2 April Hay; William Theodore De Bary Sources of Indian Tradition. Columbia University Press. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Archived from the original on 17 July Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment. Allied Publishers. Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 5 August Nagel's encyclopedia-guide.
Why then the Dravidian capitalists or self-respect brigades should have supported and availed of such services for infrastructure activities going on in Tamilnadu. It is evident that he tries to enforce his views on others, without caring for the freedom of expression, thought, belief etc…Ironically, he spoke against Nanditha Krishna  , ICHR member, who was invited for the valedictory function.
Jagadesan, A. Atheist and Periyarist discourse of casteism and racism in gender: Subaveerapandian, a hardcore atheist and Periyarist started apologetically, that he does not know any language other than Tamil.
Kosambi and K. Neelakanda Sastri were also not historians, but only mathematicians, he gathered courage to speak . He pointed out that generally fair-skin women are liked by others than dark-skinned women. Though, fair-white—skin women are poor, they are getting married quickly.
Dark-skinned men also like only fair-white—skin women.
Top tourist places to visit in Tamil Nadu
I am telling you fact only. The liking or attraction towards white has been only due to the slavish mentality ingrained in our minds. However, there is a difference between the racism of the westerners and that of ours. There white men ridicule black men, here, though black men is black, they ridicule other black men.
We are not exception in this aspect. He interpreted that casteism has been there not only in colour, but also in relation, dress, name and other factors.
He also confessed pointing out that he has been whiter than his friend and so on. Earlier they asked, what that woman [used slang word] was telling and now what Inspector Madam is telling, with the changing status, but, with gender bias. However, he could not explain as to why and how the last Dravidian rule in Tamilnadu could not achive considerably in social and economic aspects though accepts that some change has taken place.
In other words, holistically, the social issues are not dealt with and only one side is projected and thrusted. The sectional presidents themselves advised to give more details or tell something that was newly discovered and can be interpreted differently. The involved historians, regularly attending senior professors and the responsible organizers should have taken notice of it and corrected, but, it has been going on in every year in the same way.
Even the sectional presidents are prone to such defects, as some times, others have to point out, when they go beyond limits giving false narratives without any basis.
She pointed out as to how Indian history has been manipulated, as pointed out during a ICHR seminar held at Bangalore.
Indian knowledge system, arts and civilization are not given space. Aryan-Dravidian differences have little evidences…. Study of sources from different languages is neglected….. Tribal studies, environmental studies….
Hardly, there is study about the history of acience and technology….. Ironically, A. Nandita Krishna a woman is there in C. Ramaswany Iyer…. One can listen to his entire speech in the link given. So, when historians have been divided ideologically, in this way, how common people could get correct history.
Moreover, A. Valedictory function — section of audience………………….Class 12 world history after Imperialism Good read. The Financial Express, May 28, The second dynasty, Kulasekharas ruled from a city on the banks of River Periyar called Mahodayapuram Kodungallur. Professor Alfred Stepan of Columbia University USA writes, "Police and army troops opened fire in twenty-one towns in the state, arrested over 10, people, and probably killed over people".
Retrieved 20 May Nagas of Padmavati.
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